4D Printing of Multi-Stimuli Responsive Protein-Based Hydrogels for Autonomous Shape Transformations

       Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3D printing, is a versatile platform for the on-demand fabrication of objects with excellent spatial control of chemical compositions and complex architectures. The introduction of stimuli-responsive materials into 3D printing affords smart materials that are able to alter their properties. Dr. Benjaporn Narupai developed 3D printed protein-based hydrogels and applied for programmable structural changes under the action of temperature, pH, or an enzyme. These unique features introduce opportunities to generate smart biomaterials including actuators, drug delivery vehicles, soft robotics, and biomedical devices.